LLT 325              Chronology:  Herodotus & background on Archaic Greece

1400-1200 Mycenean empire
1191 Sea peoples advance as far as Egypt, defeated by Ramses III
ca. 1150, fall of Mycenae 
1050-950  era of colonization, Asia minor 
                        (cf. Herodotus on Heraclids of Lydia).               ' DARK AGE '

ca. 1000, so-called 'Dorian invasion'                                                     
800-700,  rise of aristocracies;  colonies to S. Italy;   Homer and Hesiod
775 (trad.)  Lycurgus and  Spartan constitution: 
 dual kingship, ephors (overseers), gerousia (council of elders)  Spartiate assembly; 
subject peoples (perioikoi and helots)

(events on the left in Greece; on the right in Asia and eastern Mediterranean)




Rise of Tyrants -- (7th c.)

at Corinth: Cypselus 657; followed by Periander, 625

        at Miletus, Thasybulus ca. 600

at Athens: Cylon attempts to seize tyranny, 632

Draco drafts law code 621

Solon's reforms 594/3

Pisistratus seizes tyranny 560; twice driven out but regains power; 546; succeeded by sons, Hippias and Hipparchus

Miltiades (the younger) tyrant in the Chersonese 524-14 (briefly restored 496-3)


Pisistratids driven out 510; Cleisthenes' reforms 508


Themistocles' archonship 493/2 return of Miltiades & 1st  trial

Athenians, led by Miltiades victorious at Battle of Marathon 490

Reform of election for archons (by lot); generals take command from polemarch;

ostracism implemented 487/6

Themistocles' decree for naval buildup

482 ostracism of Aristides





Lydia: Gyges, 678-52,

(cf. tale of Candaules' queen)





Croesus 560-546

Persia: Cyrus conquers Lydia,

Cambyses conquers Egypt, 525

Darius, 521-486



Ionians revolt, 499; Sardis burned, 498

Persians conquer Miletus 494


Death of Darius, Pisistratids at court of Xerxes, joined by Demaratus


Debate of Mardonius and Artabanus

				480  Naval battle at Artemisium; Spartans under Leonidas make a stand at Thermopylae. 
           Sept. 480    Battle of Salamis:  Eurybiades commands Greek fleet
                  strategy of Themistocles prevails. Persian main column withdraws.

	479   Mardonius defeated at Plataea by Greek forces led by Spartan 	regent Pausanias;   
 Persian force in Ionia defeated at Mycale by Spartan king Leotychidas;  Ionians revolt.