How to rebuild a democracy: in no easy steps.

(Chronology based on Krentz)


Sept. 404--After est. of 30 and 3000 , Thrasybulus & 70 take to the hills of Phyle

Jan. 403 --the resistance miraculously saved by snow fall, prevails in skirmish.

Feb. 403 -- the 30 radicalize: proscription of metics and Niceratus (Nicias' son) ....Theramenes executed (death of Alcibiades in Asia)

            Embattled 30 call in Spartan garrison

April/May 403-- Spartan garrison secures downtown; democrats invade at Munychia. Defeat for the oligarchs, Critias killed;

democrats led by Thrasybulus and Anytus, occupy Peiraeus (ca. 6 mos.);

 surviving 30 and radical supporters withdraw to Eleusis

June -Aug.-- Spartans, first Lysander then Pausanias, intervene--the one to crush democratic resistance, the latter to preserve some viable balance.

By October 403 democracy is restored: negotiations brokered by Pausanias have concluded a peace treaty based upon partition agreement: oligarchs keep Eleusis.

The two parties to reconcile in Athens conclude traditional 'settlement' diallagai

 (much like arbitrated settlement between private citizens)

[based on my own work]

Common notion of 'amnesty' = virtual immunity for past offenses.

Instead a set of specific rules for resolving outstanding claims; strict rule of 'no reprise' for past penalties and disfranchisement.

Hostility with Eleusis continued apparently until summer of 401 (or later).

A second settlement secured rights of returnees, seen as a Contract.

Aftermath, self-congratulatory tradition of 'forgiveness' and solidarity.

But the grim reality revealed in the record of lawsuits and other reprisal.


3 famous cases, all within 1-2 years of second settlement:

Lysias v. Eratosthenes .....Meletus et al. v. Andocides ......Anytus et al. v. Socrates