Reading for Review: Herodotos I. 1-4

Before beginning the passage, study the basic rules and exx. for Herodotos’ Ionic dialect (remember, Ionic is the basis for koinē), as it compares to Attic (Athenaze p. 179).


Ionic has η where Attic has

   as in  ἱστορίη for ἱστορίᾱδιαφορὴ for διαφορὰ, ‘difference, dispute’;  

            αἰτίη, cause;   ἡμέρη, day;    χώρη, land, territory  ~ χῶρον, place.

—and note dat. end in -ῃσι, rather than –αισι:  ναυτιλίῃσι μακρῇσι = in/with long boats

Ionic leaves vowel-stem verbs uncontracted: οἰκέουσι, they dwell (for οἰκοῦσι)΄

            Ἐρυθρὴ καλεομένη θάλασσα = the (so-) called Red Sea  (for καλουμένη < καλέω)

Odd or lost diphthongs: Ionic handles vowel combinations differently (esp. where digamma [w] was lost):  θαυμαστὰ, marvelous --> θωμαστὰ;  τὠυτὸ = τ αὐτὸ,  the same thing

            ἀπο-δέξις = ἀπο-δείξις, exposition, description from  δείκνυμι, ‘show’;

            similarly ἀποδεχθείς, acc. ἀποδεχθέντα = aor. pass. partcip., ‘shown, displayed’

            For ἀπ-άγω, take away (plunder), Ionic has ἀπ-αγινέω --> participle ἀπαγινέων.

            The main word for ‘ship’ (Attic ναῦς, νεὼς, νηί, ναῦν) νηῦς, νεός, νηί, νέα...

                        similarly βασιλέος, gen. for Attic βασιλέως

            οὔνομα for Attica ὄνομα, name.

            And remember ἐς  for εἰς, in(to), among, against.

Loss of aspiration (‘psilosis’): ἀπικόμενοι, φ-ικόμενοι, from ἀφικνέομαι, arrive.

And note that Herodotos is fond ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε (κτλ.) for ‘this, the following’.


Now return to Herodotos’ ‘preface’ (which we read in ch. 23) and continue with the first cause of quarrels between Europe and Asia (§§2-4). Keep an eye on vocabulary and names in margin.


I.          Ἡροδότου Ἁλικαρνησσέος ἱστορίης ἀπόδεξις ἥδε, ὡς μήτε τὰ γενόμενα ἐξ ἀνθρώπων τῷ χρόνῳ ἐξίτηλα γένηται, μήτε ἔργα μεγάλα τε καὶ θωμαστά, τὰ μὲν Ἕλλησι τὰ δὲ βαρβάροισι ἀποδεχθέντα, ἀκλεᾶ γένηται, τά τε ἄλλα καὶ δι' ἣν αἰτίην ἐπολέμησαν ἀλλήλοισι.

            Περσέων μέν νυν οἱ λόγιοι Φοίνικας αἰτίους φασί γενέσθαι τῆς διαφορῆς. τούτους γὰρ ἀπό τῆς Ἐρυθρῆς καλεομένης θαλάσσης ἀπικομένους ἐπὶ τήνδε τὴν θάλασσαν, καὶ οἰκήσαντας τοῦτον τὸν χῶρον τὸν καὶ νῦν οἰκέουσι, αὐτίκα ναυτιλίῃσι μακρῇσι ἐπιθέσθαι, ἀπαγινέοντας δὲ φορτία Αἰγύπτιά τε καὶ Ἀσσύρια τῇ τε ἄλλῃ ἐσαπικνέεσθαι καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐς Ἄργος. [2] τὸ δὲ Ἄργος τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον προεῖχε ἅπασι τῶν ἐν τῇ νῦν Ἑλλάδι καλεομένῃ χωρῇ. ἀπικομένους δὲ τούς Φοίνικας ἐς δὴ τὸ Ἄργος τοῦτο διατίθεσθαι τὸν φόρτον. [3] πέμπτῃ δὲ ἢ ἕκτῃ ἡμέρῃ ἀπ' ἧς ἀπίκοντο, ἐξεμπολημένων σφι σχεδόν πάντων, ἐλθεῖν ἐπὶ τὴν θάλασσαν γυναῖκας ἄλλας τε πολλάς καὶ δὴ καὶ τοῦ βασιλέος θυγατέρα: τὸ δέ οἱ οὔνομα εἶναι, κατὰ τὠυτὸ τὸ καὶ Ἕλληνές λέγουσι, Ἰοῦν τὴν Ἰνάχου: [4] ταύτας στάσας κατά πρύμνην τῆς νεὸς ὠνέεσθαι τῶν φορτίων τῶν σφι ἦν θυμός μάλιστα: καὶ τοὺς Φοίνικας διακελευσαμένους ὁρμῆσαι ἐπ' αὐτάς.

τὰς μὲν δὴ πλεῦνας τῶν γυναικῶν ἀποφυγεῖν, τὴν δὲ Ἰοῦν σὺν ἄλλῃσι ἁρπασθῆναι. ἐσβαλομένους δὲ ἐς τὴν νέα οἴχεσθαι ἀποπλέοντας ἐπ' Αἰγύπτου.



ὡς ... γένηται, purpose (ὡς for ὅπως)

ἐξίτηλα ... ἀκλεᾶ, near synonyms,  = ‘faded ... without fame’

τά τε ἄλλα καὶ, lit, ‘the rest and...’ = especially on what account

λόγιος, chronicler, scholar

Φοίνικας (acc.) -- Phoenicians

φασί -- (they) say, introducing acc. & infin. construction

ἐπιθέσθαι--‘put on (board), from ἐπι-τίθημι  (what form?)

φορτία  -- cargo (neut. pl.)

ἐσαπικνέεσθαι < εἰς-αφικνέομαι

Argos is on a peninsula on the east coast of Hellas, including Mycenae.

προ-εχω – excel, lead (in importance)

διατίθεσθαι --  dispose of (sell)

ἐξεμπολημένων ... πάντων – when nearly everything was sold


Io, the daughter of Inachus

ὠνέεσθαι – to buy, purchase (some)

σφι ἦν θυμός – she had a desire

‘on command pounced’ (< ὁρμάω)

= πλέονας,  more, most

ἁρπάζω – seize, capture