LLT 121 Myth Notes Chh. 1-5

(1) The following terms indicate topics of emphasis in the readings and lectures.Bracketed terms [ ] indicate material not in Powell but to be developed in lecture. Be able to identify major figures, explain the concepts, summarize main story line.

Ch. 1. Nature of Myth:
                    Traditional Story --What is meant by each element, 'tradition' and 'story'?
                    Types of Myth -- Give example(s) of each.
                                         Divine Myth [or 'True Myth'] --(a)etiology   [and Euhemerism]           
                                         Legend or Saga                                 
                                         Folktale --motif  of the quest [Propp]
                                         Literature and Archaeology           
                                                             Schliemann's discovery of Troy and Mycenae
                    [Approaches to Myth:  Cf. Powell Ch. 23/24
                                         Social Function [Myth and Ritual] 
                                         Comparative Mythology
                                         Psychological approaches: Freud and Jung]
                                         Structuralism and Story-patterns: esp. Levi-Strauss's binary oppositions
                                                             Anthropological approaches: Burkert's Homo Necans]
Ch. 2. Cultural Context
                    The Coming of the Greeks [or Hellenic peoples] -- 
Know the basic chronology and what developments defined each period.
                                         Bronze Age Migrations -- vs. indigenous culture
                                         Mycenean Empire  -- [Achaeans] vs. Minoans; Linear-B writing
                                         Dark Age -- Dorians  [and 'Sea Peoples']
                                            Emergence of the Polis (‘city-state’, walled urban center)
                                         Archaic Greece-- the rise of Epic,  Homer and Hesiod
                                         Classical Athens-- Tragedy and Comedy
                                         Hellenistic World
                    Greek Society -- Describe distinguishing features.
                                         Family and Gender  
                                         Religion: Belief and Cult practice -- magic and animism
                    Roman Adaptation
Ch. 3.-- Development of Classical Myth 
                     "Men imagine ... the gods ..." (Aristotle Pol. 1252b)
Wedding of Greek and Indigenous cultures     
                    Neolothic Fertility Goddess (as early as 8000 BC)
                                         Cycladic figurines (ca. 3000)
                                         Artemis 'Mistress of the Beasts' 
                    Indo-European Sky-god -- Zeus/Jupiter
                                         Mycenean Gods named in Linear-B tablets: list six
                                         oral tradition, transmitted by 'singers' (aoidoi)
                                                             research of Milman Parry [formulaic composition]
Near Eastern Myth
                    Sumerians and Semites -- Mesopotamia: Tigris-Euphrates
                                         cuneiform writing (ca. 3400 BC)    and    ziggurat temples
                                         'Ur of the Chaldees'
                    Chief deities, Sumerian (and Semitic)
                                         An(u)  and Ki/Ninhursag                                                          Enlil
                                         Enki (Ea)                                                                                     Ereshkigal and Kur
                                         Inanna (Ishtar)                                                                          Utu (Shamash)
                    Semitic dominance (by 2000 BC)
                                         Sargon of Akkad
                                         Hammurabi of Babylon (1750)
                                         Enuma Elish  ('When on high ...'), the triumph of Marduk over Tiamat
                    Adapters of NE tradition:
                                         Hebrews and spread of Semitic Alphabet (Phoenicians)
                                         Hittites (in modern Turkey)            
Archaic Greek poetry
                                         Homer, Hesiod, and rhapsodes
Development of Tragedy (at Athens)
                                         Aeschylus                                           Sophocles                                           Euripides    
                    Hellenistic tradition (after Alexander)
                                         Apollonius and Apollodorus
                                         scholarly interests and stoicism
                    Roman adaptation: Vergil and Ovid
Ch. 4 -- Creation: Rise of Zeus
Hesiod's Theogony
                    Chaos and Cosmogony
                                         Gaea: mother earth     Tartarus     Eros
                                                             Erebus and Nyx
                                                                                 Moerae (so-called 'Fates') and Nemesis
                                         Children of Gaea:        Uranus       Mountains (Ourea)                           Sea (Pontus)
                                                             Gaea mating w/ Uranus-->  Cyclopes and Hundred-handers
                                                                                 Titans (12)  note esp. Oceanus       Hyperion                        
                                                                                                      Iapetus       Themis       Mnemosyne   Cronus & Rhea
                                                             Gaea mating w/ Pontus--> multi-form monsters (e.g. Sphinx and Cerberus)
                                                                                                      Daughters of Nereus--'Nereids'--notably Thetis
                                                             Children of Hyperion and their tragic loves (emergent anthropomorphism)
                                                                                 Helius and son Phaethon
                                                                                 Selene and Endymion
                                                                                 Eos and aged Tithonus
Succession Myth in 3 stages (adapted from NE model)
                    'First Succession': Cronus against Uranus
                                                                                 offspring of castrated Uranus: Furies of Vengeance
                                                                                                      Aphrodite (note Botticelli's 'Birth of Venus')
                    'Second Succession': Zeus against Cronus
                                         Children of Cronus and Rhea= First-generation Olympians: 
                                                                                 Hades, Poseidon, Hestia, Hera, Demeter, and Zeus
                                                             Cronus devours his offspring (Goya's 'Saturn')
                                                             Rhea conspires with Gaea to save infant Zeus
                                                                                 substituing omphalos  (=Metis's emetic?)
                                                             Titanomachy: Zeus and brethren, joined by Themis and Prometheus,
                                                                                 overthrow Cronus; Titans cast into Tartarus
                    Third Stage: Challenges to Zeus (all defeated)
                                         Typhoeus/Typhon  (offspring of Earth and Tartarus)
                                                             note differing versions in Hesiod and Apollodorus
                                         Brides of Zeus
                                                             Metis--> Athena
                                                             Prometheus' warns of Thetis
                                         Zeus triumphant, divides the world with Hades and Poseidon  (casting lots?)
Major themes in Greek Creation
                                         Differentiation through procreation 
                                         Patterns of conflict
                                                             hierarchy created by successive struggle 
                                                                                 younger generation against the old regime
Near Eastern antecedents
                    Enuma Elish
                                         primordial Apsu and Tiamat
                                         Anu and Ea/Enki (=Cronus) in rebellion
                                         Marduk (~ Zeus)
                    Hittite Creation: Succession in 4 stages
                                         Alalush >> Anu >> Kumarbi >> Storm God Teshub (~ Zeus)
                                                             Teshub challenged by Ullikummi
Ch. 5 -- Creation continued: Origins of Mortals
Prometheus, maker of Man
                    Other creators: Ovid suggests 'Maker of All Things'?
From what substance is man made?
                    in Ovid's version?
                    in Enuma Elish
                    Sumerian Creation: Enki and 'Earth' make man of primordial clay
                                                                                                      (complete with disabilities)
Prometheus, savior of Man
                     invents 'trick of sacrifice: Hesiod Theogony  535-57.
                    What punishment for this deception?
                    Theft of Fire
                                         What punishment for this act of defiance?
                    Gifts of Prometheus and his promised deliverance (p. 116-7)
Pandora (and Epimetheus)
                    Who made her, of what material, and why?
                    Note, p.123-4: 'Women as Containers'
Five Races of Man (or 'Ages of Man') --  Hesiod Works and Days  106-201
                    List the 'Races' in order    Cycles of Doom Compared
                                         Who is the creator of each 'race'?
                                                             of what substance? -- and what does that imply about his nature?
The Flood: Ovid Metamorphoses  1.211-61
                    Sins of Lycaon             Salvation by Deucalion and Pyrrha
                    cf. Genesis  6-8;            Sumerian/Babylonian version: Ziusudra/Atrahasis
(Cf.: Aristophanes' parody of man-making)
Prominent themes:  What do these stories tell us about the ancient view of human character?
                    What are the causes of man's godlike qualities? his defects and downfall?