Participles thus far: fairly complete paradigms are given, Book II, pp. 285-7.

    Give special attention to Athematics and Aorist Passives (2-3 in red below)


Remember: As verbal adjectives, they agree with some noun or pronoun (as their subject) but may take their own object or other predicate: translate with '-ing'. With definite article --> '(the one)'


1) thematic Middle: these are the easiest to form:

just replace endings with  -όμενος,  -η,  -ον

δέχ-ομαι --> δεχ- όμενος,  -η,  -ον,  γίγν-ομαι  -- γιγνόμενος,  -η,  -ον

So '(the one) receiving the money' is [ὁ] δεχόμενος τὸ ἀργύριον

or ὁ τὸ ἀργύριον δεχόμενος

(the one) 'Becoming great' [ὁ] μέγας γιγνόμενος

 Of course, participles can be singular or plural, in any case:

We heard/listened to (the man) receiving the money; ...the one becoming great:

 ἠκούσαμεν [τοῦ ἀνδρὸς] τοῦ δεχομένου    

(or τοῦ τὸ ἀργύριον δεχομένου]

ἠκούσαμεν [τοῦ ἀνδρὸς] μεγάλου γιγνομένου

We obeyed (+ dative)...

          ἐπειθόμεθα  [τῷ ἀνδρί] τῷ δεχομένῳ...  (or τῷ τὸ ἀργύριον δεχομένῳ]

          ἐπειθόμεθα  [τῷ ἀνδρί] μεγάλῳ γιγνομένῳ.


2) Active


The present active participles are formed

like 'old man' γέρων,  γέροντος  in the masculine;

feminines end in -σα,  -σης

γραφ-ω  ---> γράφ-ων,  γράφοντος....γράφ-ουσα  writing

γιγνωσκ-ω-->γιγνώσκων,  γιγνώσκοντος ...γιγνώσκουσα,  --ούσης   learning

λαμβαν-ω ---> λαμβάνων,  -οντος...λαμβάνουσα,  -ουσης -- taking


First aorists active are formed without augment, like πaς,  πᾶσα,  πᾶν [παντός,  κτλ.]

and generally convey the sense of finite or finished event, a single moment (whereas the present conveys ongoing action)

ἔγραψα--> γράψας,  γράψαντος...γράψασα,  -άσης  '(having) written' or 'writing (all at once)'

  πράττω,  ἔπραξα....  --> πράξας, πράξαντος ...(fem) πραξᾶσα, πραξάσης .

πέμπω,  ἒπεμψα...--> πέμψας, πέμψαντος ...(fem) πεμψᾶσα, πεμψάσης



Second aorists active form their participles just like the present (but accent the ending)

ἔλαβον--> λαβών,  λαβόντος... λαβοῦσα,  -ούσης 

'(having) taken' or 'taking (all at once)'

Practice with  λείπω,  ἔλιπον ....

πάσχω,  ἔπαθον...


Athematic aorists are formed like the First aorists but without the -sa- or like 2nd aorist withou o/e:

 endings added directly to the vowel of the root:

γιγνώσκω,  ἔγνων  (root gno-) --> γνοῦς (from gno- + nts) γνόντος =

'knowing/having learned/ realizing"

 βαίνω,  ἔβην --> βάς (from ba- + nts) βάντος,  ...βᾶσα,  βάσης, 

'(having) gone, stepped'


If you remember these, the -μι verbs are easy--because they, too, are athematic (without the o/e connecting vowel of regular verbs). You add participle endings directly to the vowel of the root:

(reduplication marks the present) 

τι-θη-μι --> (reduplicated present, root the-+ nts)   τι-θείς,  τιθέντος, ...

τιθεῖσα,  τιθείσης...'putting/placing'

 ἔθηκα  --> (root the-+ nts)  θείς,  θέντος  (without reduplication), θεῖσα, -ης

= '(having) put/placed'

 δι-δω-μι --> (reduplicated present, root do-+ nts)  δι-δούς,  διδόντος...

διδοῦσα,  διδούσης... giving

 ἒδωκα  --> (root do-+ nts)  δούς,  δόντος  (without reduplication)

= '(having) given'


3) Aorist passive:    regularly follow the patterns - θείς,-θεῖσα, -θέν or -είς, εῖσα, έν,

as though you are adding the aorist active participles for τίθημι or ἵημι.

ἐ-λύ-θην --> λυ-θείς/λυ-θεῖσα     


Stems ending in aspirate or l,m,n or -r- loose the -θ-

ἐ-γράφ-ην --> γραφ-είς, -εντος ... (fem) γραφ-εῖσα, -είσης

δι-εφθάρ-ην --> δια-φθαρ-είς, -εντος ... (fem) φθαρ-εῖσα, -είσης


4) Future participles are formed like the present: but remember some active verbs 'go middle'

 βαίνω,  βήσομαι -- βησόμενος,  -η '(being) about to go'

λαμβάνω,  λήψομαι -->ληψόμενος,  -η 'about to take'

μανθάνω,  μαθήσομαι-- μαθησόμενος,  -η,   'about to learn'

Practice with ἀπο-θνῄσκω....


-μι verbs have regular futures:

τίθημι,  θήσω --> θήσων,  θήσοντος...θήσουσα,  θησούσης

δίδωμι,  δώσω -- δώσων,  δώσοντος...δώσουσα. κτλ

ἵστημι,  στήσω-- στήσων,  στήσοντος...στήσουσα,  κτλ


Remember future participles are especially useful with ὡς  to express purpose = so as/in order to:

"They listened to the old man (in order) to learn the truth"

 ἤκουσαν τοῦ γέροντος ὡς τὴν ἀλήθειαν γνώσομενοι  (plural nom. to agree with subj.)