Treasures of Darkness, ch. 3


This chapter illustrates the shift in metaphors, from the immanent force of nature to the personified ruler.

The divine rulers were presumably drawn on the model of mortal kings--and measured against them. Note the defiant rulers who challenge the gods, p.79. Name one.


The transition is indicated in Gudea's Prayer, p. 80: Identify the two aspects of Ningirsu (=Ninurta), as force-in-storm and master who dictates to his mortal servants.

The metaphor extends to allegorical dimensions by assigning appropriate duties to subordinate figures in the cult, as the divine ruler acquires a "manor" or estate, and retinue of officers. This is illustrated from Ningirsu's cult at Girsu: each underling is to perform a specific duty: Note a few examples.


This organizational principle is applied to the Order of the World, the Cosmos at large. Note a few examples from "Enki and the World Order" (p. 85-6).

Finally, in this context, what is represented by the Assembly of the Gods (=Annunaki)?