Operating Costs
      -Fixed Costs


Invention or Innovation
      -Bessemer Process

Natural Resources

Labor Supply
      -New Immigrants

Intellectual Backing
      -John D. Rockefeller

Proper Distribution of Income and Wealth
      -Concentration of Wealth

Government Policy
      -Laissez Faire
      -Morrill Tariff (1861)
          -Santa Clara Co. v. Southern Pacific RR (1883)
-National banking Acts (1862, 1863, 1864)
      -Direct Subsidies
           -Railroad Land Grants
      -Homestead Act (1862)
      -Pro-Business Tax Policies



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      RRs, 1870-1890

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    Natural Resources








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     RR Land Grants