Non Silicates


                 Mineral Names underlined are subject for lab examination--site I.D. 
Other material is subject for lecture exam # 4
                    Minerals & info listed under I = (lab exam 3 and lecture exam #4)
                    Minerals "    " listed under II = (lab exam 4 and lecture exam #4) 


I.  Native Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides-Hydroxides and Halides (Chapters
      15 and 16) (subject for lab exam 3 and lecture exam 4)

     A. Native Elements
          -consist of minerals comprised of atoms of only one element-there are 3 subclasses in this class
         1. Metals
             -Au, Ag, Cu, Pt and Fe which are minerals possessing special properties including high
               heat and electrical conductance, malleability, ductility and a metallic bond

         2. Semi-metals
             -Sb and Bi are minerals which are poorer in conductors of  heat and electricity and are
              more brittle than the metals, and have a bond type intermediate between metallic
              and covalent

         3. Non-metals
             -graphite (C) and sulfur (S) are nonconductors of electricity, very brittle and soft--minerals
              have a covalent bond--graphite is used as a source for carbon in the production of steel
              and S used in the production of sulfuric acid


    B. Sulfides (including arsenides and sulfarsenides)
        -consist of minerals, predominantly metallic in character, with the general formula AmXp,
          in which X represents S or to a lesser extent As, Sb, Bi, and Te and A represents one or
          more metals--in the arsenides and sulfarsenides, semimetals take the place of sulfur totally
          (NiAs) or in part (FeAsS) while in the sulfides, S is the only major anion
        -consist of minerals known as "primary ore minerals" formed directly from an aqueous
         medium (hydrothermal solutions) with no oxidation processes-

        -chalcocite (Cu2S)--can resemble enargite but does not have cleavage
        -bornite (Cu5FeS4)--peacock ore--displays a tarnish quality and may resemble covellite
                                        but does not display prominent cleavage
        -galena (PbS)--very high specific gravity and displays prominent cubic cleavage--only
                                source for lead
        -sphalerite (ZnS)--actually (Fe,Zn)S--is usually resinous to adamantine with prominent
                                     cleavage--yellowish to deep red (ruby ore) to black ("jack") indicating
                                     a progressively higher content of Fe substituting for Zn--a geothermal
                                     mineral--most important ore of zinc and important source of Cd--
                                     leaves a rotten egg smell when scratched on a porcelain plate
        -chalcopyrite (CuFeS2)--looks like pyrite but no cleavage and softer than glass--can 
                                               resemble millerite but does not contain the radiating crystal habit-
                                               resembles pyrrhotite and marcasite but chalcopyrite is not 
                                               magnetic and does not have the cockscomb structure res-
        -pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS)--magnetic--Fe deficiency with respect to sulfur
( where x = 0 to 0.2)
                                   This deficiency forms an omission solid solution and a defect structure
        -nickeline (niccolite) (NiAs)
        -millerite  (NiS)--hairlike radiating crystals
        -pentlandite (Fe,Ni)9S8--closely resembles pyrrhotite but not magnetic--the principal ore
                                              of Ni
        -covellite (CuS)--excellent cleavage--often iridescent--can resemble bornite but has cleav-
                                   age resembling mica-- often shows an indigo color
        -cinnabar (HgS)--red and very dense with prominent cleavage--most important ore of Hg
        -realgar (AsS)--red and associated with orpiment
        -orpiment (As2S3)--yellow and distinguished from sulfur by its prominent cleavage
        -pyrite (FeS2)--most common sulfide mineral--differs from chalcopyrite in that it scratches
                                glass--cube form with striations a common occurrence
        -marcasite (FeS2)--a polymorph of pyrite--differs from pyrite by its "cockscomb"
        -molybdenite (MoS2)--prominent cleavage--distinguished from graphite by its higher
                                          specific gravity and a bluish tone to the color--principle ore of Mo
        -arsenopyrite (FeAsS)--distinguished from marcasite by its silver-white color--principal
                                             source of As

    C. Sulfosalts
        -these have the general formula AmBnXp which may be written as a double sulfide,
         AmXq.BnX(p-q) where A can be Ag, Cu, Pb and B can be As, Sb, Bi and X is S--the
         semimetals act as cations in sulfosalts as compared to anions in the sulfarsenides and 
        -enargite (Cu3AsS4)--distinguished from chalcocite by its prominent cleavage

      D. Oxides-Hydroxides

          -the bond type of the oxide minerals is primarily ionic compared to the more prevalent
          covalent bond in the sulfides and sulfosalts--this results in part to a greater hardness
          of the oxides compared to the sulfides and sulfosalts

            -cuprite (Cu2O)--red in various shades
            -zincite (ZnO)--occurs with black franklinite  
        1. Hematite group
isostructural group in which there are 6 O surrounding each respective cation and 4
                                         respective cations surrounding each O (ev of bonds =1/2)
             -corundum (Al2O3)--very hard--hardness of 9 on Moh's hardness scale--sapphires
              (blue) and rubies (red) are important gemstone varieties
             -hematite (Fe2O3)--most important ore of Fe--may be oolitic hematite (non metallic), 
              specularite or  massive hematite (metallic luster)
             -ilmenite (FeTiO3)--distinguished from magnetite by its lack of strong magnetism--the
                                            major source of Ti

        2. Rutile group
isostructural group in which 6 O surround each cation and 3 respective cations surround
                                         each O
             -rutile (TiO2)--reddish color--distinguished from cassiterite by its
                                    much lower specific gravity
             -pyrolusite (MnO2)--low hardness--leaves a black streak on paper--the most
                                             important Mn ore
             -cassiterite (SnO2)--very high specific gravity--principle ore of Sn

        3. Spinel group
isostructural group in which the first metal in formula is +2 and second mineral +3
-magnetite (Fe3O4) or (FeO).(Fe2O3) or (FeFe2O4)--magnetic
              -chromite (FeCr2O4)--massive to granular--the only ore of Cr
              -franklinite (Zn, Fe, Mn) (Fe, Mn)2O4--distinguished from magnetite by its lack of
                                                                           strong magnetism and association with zincite

              -brucite (Mg(OH)2)--distinguished from talc by a greater hardness and lack of greasy
              -manganite (MnO(OH))--distinguished from pyrolusite by its brown streak--often
                                                      occurs in prismatic crystals
              -romanechite (psilomelane) (Ba(Mn+2)(Mn+4)8O16 (OH)4)--often occurs in botryoidal
               -goethite (FeO(OH))
               -bauxite (mixture of minerals)--most important ore of Al--recognized by its pisolitic


         E. Halides
        -consist of minerals with a halogen anion
                -halite (NaCl)--distinguished by its cubic cleavage and salty taste--less bitter taste
                                        than that for sylvite (KCl)
                -cryolite (Na3AlF6)
                -fluorite (CaF2)--often found in cubes and has an octahedral cleavage--is an important
                                           source for F in the production of HF

   II. Carbonates, Borates, Sulfates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Vanadates,
      Phosphates (Chapter 17) (subject for lab exam 4 and lecture exam 4)
       -as mentioned in the section "Atomic Structure of Minerals" the anisodesmic bond
         is prominent in the minerals of these classes--the B-O bond in the borate mineral class
         is mesodesmic--go back and review the different bond types

    A. Carbonates 
         1. Calcite group
isostructural group with 6 oxygens surrounding each Ca or Mg or Fe, or Mn, or Zn
                                           atom 3 O surrounding each C, and 1 C and 2 of the respective
                                           aforementioned cations surrounding each O
              -calcite (CaCO3)--prominent rhombohedral cleavage and often found as rhombohedron
                                           and/or scalenohedron crystals--distinguished from other minerals
                                           by the strong effervescence with cold HCl in a solid-non powdered form
              -magnesite (MgCO3)--prominent rhombohedral cleavage but rare and usually fine to
                                                 cryptocrystalline and white
              -siderite (FeCO3)--prominent rhombohedral cleavage with curved faces--distinguished
                                            from other carbonates by its light to dark color and from
                                            sphalerite by its rhombohedral cleavage and lack of sulfur smell of
                                            the powder on a streak plate
              -rhodochrosite ( MnCO3)--prominent rhombohedral cleavage with curved faces and 
                                                        distinguished by its pink color
              -smithsonite (ZnCO3)--prominent cleavage--usually blue-green in color and botryoidal
                                                  or stalactitic in its form

         2. Aragonite group
isostructural group with 9 oxygens surrounding each cation other than C, 3 O sur-
                                           rounding each C, and 1 C and 3 respective cations surrounding
                                           each O
               -aragonite (CaCO3)--polymorphic with calcite--distinguished from calcite by its lack
                                                of rhombohedral cleavage and from witherite and strontianite by
                                                its lower specific gravity
               -witherite (BaCO3)--very dense--distinguished from barite by its effervescence in cold
                                                HCl in powdered form

         3. Dolomite group
isostructural group similar to that of the calcite group
               -dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2)--crystal varieties abundantly show curved rhombohedral
                                                        crystals--effervesces in hot HCl or in dilute HCl in powder
                                                        form only
        4. Hydrous carbonate group
           -malachite (Cu2CO3(OH)2)--distinguished by its bright green color and botryoidal forms,
                                                      effervesces slightly with cold HCl yielding a green solution
           -azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2)--characterized by its azure-blue color and effervescence in HCl

    B. Borates
        -because of the presence of a mesodesmic bond between B and O, there is polymerization
          between basic units as in the silicates---borates are the most important source of B and

      -kernite (hydrated Na Borate)--characterized by its long splintery cleavage fragments and
                                                       slow solubility in cold water--can resemble gypsum but is harder
      -borax ("                 "       "      )--characterized by its crystals and easy solubility in cold water
      -colemanite("           Ca   "       )--commonly found in short prismatic crystals

    C. Sulfates
          1. Barite group
isostructural group in which 12 O surround each Ba or Sr or Pb, 4 O surround each S,
                                        and 1 S and 3 of the respective aforementioned cations surround each
               -barite (BaSO4)--distinguished by its prominent cleavage, very high specific gravity,
                                           and crystals--is the chief source of Ba--can occur in several forms
                                           as bladed barite, clear barite, black barite, and rose barite

      -anhydrite (CaSO4)--is not isostructural with the barite group because of the 8 O surround-
                                          ing each Ca with 1 S and only 2 Ca surrounding each O--3 right
                                          angle directions of cleavage

          2. Hydrous sulfate group

             -gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O)--characterized by its softness and 3 unequal cleavages--there are
                                                  various varieties as bladed gypsum, selenite (clear) gypsum,
                                                  satin spar gypsum, and massive or alabaster gypsum
              -alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6)

    D. Tungstates, Molybdates and Vanadates
       1. Tungstates
            -wolframite group is an
isostructural group with abundant solid solution between FeWO4,
ferberite and MnWO4, heubnerite
         -wolframite ((Fe,Mn)WO4)--distinguished from other minerals by its black color, one
                                                       directional cleavage, and high specific gravity--chief source 
                                                        of W

       2. Molybdates
         -wulfenite (PbMoO4)--characterized by its tabular (tetragonal) crystals and its orange to
                                             yellow color and high specific gravity

       3. Vanadates
         -vanadinite ((Pb5(VO4)3Cl)--characterized by its ruby-red, to orange-red color, resinous
                                                       luster and high specific gravity

   E.  Phosphates
-monazite ((Ce,La,Y,Th)PO4)--a rare earth phosphate--very high specific gravity mineral--
                                                          the main source of Th and some other rare earth elements
         -apatite (Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH))--green apatite, yellow and red apatite are some colors
                                                            in which this mineral occurs
         -amblygonite (LiAlFPO4)--distinguished from plagioclase by the lack of striation twinning
         -wavellite (Al3(PO4)2(OH)3.5H2O)--almost always found in radiating crystal form and
                                                                   usually green in color
         -turquoise (Cu phosphate)--distinguished by its color and harder than chrysocolla