Review for Exam #3
01. Discuss the nature of the heroic in ancient Greco-Roman myth.
- Bridge between humans and divine;
- character flaws: drunk, adultery, rape, peevishness, incest, lying, cannibalism.
- unable to keep steady family/love, do things that benefit others,
- still do things wrong but make up for them in unhuman-like ways.
02. Appeal of the heroic: humanlike, entertainment
- Euhemerus (Greek, 300 BC)
- Believed that myths come from history,
- Euhemerism- belief that the gods were once human and deified for their great deeds.
03. Compare Heracles, Theseus, Jason, and Perseus with the Herometer.
Herc Thes Jas Pers Divine birth on one side Y Y - Y Weird events from birth onward Y Y Y Y Hero faced with opposition Y Y Y Y Proves heroism by overcoming opposition Y Y Y Y Love interest Y Y Y Y Has Helper Y Y Y Y Labors Y Y Y Y Confrontation with death Y Y Y -
04. Hercules (the glory of Hera) and his origin
- fathered by Zeus (disguised as Amphityon) and Alcmena.
- Amphitryon (adoptive father) gone to avenge wifes (Alcmena) brothers deaths from war.
- Twins born: Heracles (Zeus and Alc) and Iphicles (Amp and Alc).
05. Heracles's Trials by Hera
- Eurystheus- cousin of Heracles for whom he performs his labors, becomes king of Mycenae (whomever born first, got to be king)
- Snakes, beast master/demigod,-sent by Hera, strangled. Now identities of children are known
- Saves Thebes, king gives him daughter, Megara, for wife. Hera strickens him w/ madness and he kills family. Goes to Oracle and must perform 12 labors for his cousin.
06. Personality traits
- Homicidal tendences-Linus-, son of Apollo. Teaches Heracles Lyre. Chastised Heracles for not right chordskilled..
- Regret and Atonement-exiled into Thebes. On mt. w/ shepherds. Kills threatening lion.
- Sexual Prowess King Thespius and 50 daughters. King wants Heracles bloodline in family, so he gets him drunk in palace and sends each of daughters in his room.
07. Heracles's Twelve "Canonical" Labors for Eurystheus
- Nemean Lion- invincible skin. Taken by beating and using own claw. Provides armor.
- Lernaean Hydra - Many headed dragon w/ immortal head. Cauterizes others, buries immortal under rock. Poison blood laces arrows.
- Cerynean Hind- Artemis's sacred deer w/ gold horns. Has to catch and bring back. (w/ permission).
- Erymanthian Boar- chases into deep snow, catches.
- Augean Stables - dirty for 10+ years, clean in one day by having 2 rivers run through stables. Refused to pay Heracles.
- Stymphalian Birds - dirty, man eating, scared them w/ bronze rattle, & shoots to get out of area.
- Cretan Bull - father of Minotaur.
- Mares of Diomedes -flesh eating horses. Killed Diomedes and fed to horses. Change to nice ponies.
- Girdle of Hippolyta (Queen of Amazons) to take off means to undress for intercourse. Kills after Hera intervenes.
- Cattle of Geryon - Go edge of world to take cattle from 3 headed monster Geryon. Brings them back in the cup of sun god Helios.
- Apples of Hesperides - tree of life guarded by dragon "Ladon". Nereus prophet instructs w/ Atlas help. Apples = immortality
- Cerberus - 3 head hound of hell-captured w/ permission from Hades; Heracles promises to marry Meleager sister Deianira.
08. Heracles's death
- Deianeira "man killer". On honey moon, need to cross river by centaur-Nessus-(1/2 man and horse) Offers to carry wife over and tries to make pass. Herc shoots and Nessus tells Deianira his blood is love potion for when Herc starts to lose love..
- Heracles tires of family life with Deianeira, goes to Archery contest in Trachis for one last adventure. Wins consort daughter Iole, then King says "no" .
- Kills Ioles brother, incurring miasma, has to be auctioned to Omphale (Lydian Queen) dress up as maid for a year.
- Returns to claim Iole, Deianera hears about this, sends favorite cloak w/ potion on it..he dies.
- Philoctetes lights funeral pyre and receives bow and arrows.
- Mortal part goes to underworld, immortal part goes to Mt. Olympus
- He marries Hebe, Goddess of youthful bloom (daughter of Zeus and Hera (Hera finds him now worthy).
09. Theseus-hero of Athens and Attica. Son of Aegeus, Poseidon, and Aethra
- King Erichthonius -1st king of Athens. When Athena born, Heph runs after to claim prize, his seed spills on ground and autochthony (to spring from ground) a creature w/ body of snake, head of human.
- Cephalus and Procris - Cephalus assists Amphitrion on labors. He dresses in disguise to test Amphitrions wife Procris. Wife unveils herself and Cephalus curses her. She joins Artemis and priestesses. Artemis gives her dog and spears that always get target. Cephalus gets spear, dog runs away. He lays underneath tree and asks for wind (aura) to come. Procris hears this and rustles bush behind him he kills her.
- King Aegeus could not impregnate wife. Oracles said not to undue hainging ft of wine skin.
- Pittheus knows what this means and gets him to bed his daughter Aethra. (Raped by Poseidon offering sacrifice by dream)
- If child is boy, he buries sandles and sword underneath rock and when of age, come meet him in Athens.
- Theseus becomes a young man and leaves to meet dhiz ad.
10. Early Labors of Theseus (Troezen to Athens)
- Periphetes (clubman) beat upside of head w/ club to punish (reversed)
- Sinis (Pine Bender) bend trees, put man in middle-thwap (reversed)
- Man Eating Sow -Theseus eats it
- Sciron (hero of Megara) Sits on cliff, tells strangers to wash feet and push over edge for giant turtle to eat.
- Cercyon (wrestler) lifted off the Earthcrushed to death
- Procrustes (the stretcher) stretches/cuts of protruding/smaller bodies on bed. (reversed)
11. Theseus and the Minotaur
- Aegeus married to Medea (Thinker). Does not recognize Theseus. Medea knows him and tries to poison w/ wine. He recognizes sword and hit cup out of hand at banquet. Medea flees. 50 sons of Pallas relize heir to thrown and try to ambushhe kills them.
- Killing of Minotaur (half man, half bull)-King Minos of Crete receives 7 best looking men/women of Athens/year. Sent to Labyrinth-maze of Cnossus (home of Minotaur) for food.
- Pasiphae (Queen) asks Poseidon to send beautiful bull for sacrifice; does not do it.
- Pasiphae made to fall in love for punishment. Daedalus builds wood cow for her have minotaur, then builds maze.
- Daedalus builds wings for himself andhis son Icarus, who flew too high and drowned in the Icarian sea. Hubris!
- Theseus goes to prove himself w/ black sail on ship (turn white if makes it)
- Ariadne gives him magic to get thru maze, he leaves her on way back to Athens on island for Dionysus to pick up.
- Aegeus sees the black sail on the horizon (Theseus forgot to change it) and jumps in sea before he gets home: Aegean Sea.
- (son of Theseus and Antiope(Hippolyta)
- kidnapped Queen of Amazons, bastard son)
- gets his own play by Euripides
- Phaedra falls in love with her stepson, Hippolytus
13. Perseus (Zeus and Danae)
- Acrisius imprisoned daughter Danae (Oracle). Zeus enters in shower of gold sunlight-conceives Perseus. Danae and Perseus put into box in sea due to Oracle saying will be killed by them.
- Washed up on island of Seriphus, ruled by king Polydectes, who covets Danae.
- Perseus has to satisfy Poly w/ gift to gain admission to party of rich (usually one horse).
- Perseus the Gorgon-slayer- befriends Athena (lends shield) and Hermes gives Cap of Darkness (Hades for invisibility), winged sandles, magic bag )to help him conquer.
- Graeae ( 3 goddesses of Old Age sharing one eye and tooth) tell him how to win after he takes their eye.
- Walking backwards, using shield as a mirror, cuts Medusa's ead off (out comes Pegasus and Chrysaor).
- On way back, saves and marries Andromeda (her mother said she was prettier than Goddesses) from a sea monster
- Shows Polydectes the head and turned to stone, Dictys king. Gives magical stuff to Hermes and shield to Athena-Medusas head on shield).
- Goes back to Argos; King Acrisius flees in fear.
- Goes to discus contest, hits Acrisius in foot-miasma
- Wanders around, eventually founds Mycenae.
14. Bellerophon-rider of Pegasus and hero of Corinth.
- Incurs miasma, goes to Argos.
- Purified by King Proetus whose wife Sthenoboea falls in love with him.
- He refuses, She writes note accusing him, king Iobates has him perform labors.
- Labor #1: Solymi
- Labor #2: Amazons
- Labor #3: Chimera
- gets big head, tries to fly to Olympus on Pegasus
- Thunderbolt kills him -- HUBRIS!!!! Pegasus stays on Mt. Olympus
15. Ixion- King of Lapiths
- bound to revolving wheel of fire for killing father in law (inventing miasma)
- for trying to rape cloud form of Hera (1st of top 53 sinners)
- Centaurus- offspring of Ixion and Nephele (cloud form of Hera)=father of centaurs
- Centaurs vs. Pirithous- leader of the Lapiths and Deidamias husband. Defeated centaurs (cousins) at his wedding cuz tried to rape bride.
- Caeneus - also at wedding. Formerly a woman named Caenis, turned into man by Poseidon after he raped her. Told people had to worship his staff, buried beneath trees.
16. Peleus and Thetis ( Parents of Achilles, greater than fathe)
- Peleus in Phthia. King Eurytion purifies him from miasma and joins him in Calydonian boar hunt.
- Peleus misses boar and kills King. Goes to Iolcus for purification. Queen Astydamia falls in love , rejected. Writes note of rape ; send Peleus to labors:
- Snipe hunting- used as bait. While sleeping, they hide his sword in dung. Wakes to surrounding of centaurs. Chiron, nice centaur, tells Peleus where sword is. Awarded wife ThetIs.
- Wedding- all Gods invited except Eris, Goddess of Discord. Eris came w/ golden apple "for the fairest."
- Hera, Aphrodite, and Athena each claim it.
- Zeus says Paris decides, all goddesses agree to give him something. He chose Aphrodite for most beautiful in world.
- Paris claims Helen, wife of Menelaus (king of Sparta), starting Trojan war.
- Thetis gives birth to Achilles and dips him by the heel in the river Styx to make him invulnerable.
17. Atlanta-heroine 1st to shoot Calydonian Boar
- Father abandons and is raised by bear and hunters.
- Expert runner. Dad now proud and holds race for hand in marriage.
- Hippomenes (aka Milanion) brings 3 golden apples and defeats her by tossing when she passes.
- Get married and consummate marriage in Artemis temple.
- Changed into Lion and Lioness (supposedly could not procreate)
18. Calydonian boar hunt
- Sent by Artemis to ravage countryside; Meleager and men go to hunt it.
- Atalanta hits it first, Meleager finishes it off.
- Uncles tease him about giving skin to Atalanta, he kills them.
- Mom takes log from box, and sets on fire-causing him to die
19. Pyramus and Thisbe (Ovid) = Romeo and Juliet
- Wall separates houses, forbidden to see one another.
- Arrange to meet outside city of Babylon by tomb of Chinoss.
- Thisbe sees lion w/ bloody teeth and leaves, dropping scarf.
- Pyramus sees veil, stabs himself in side. Blood gets on veil and on tree = Mulberry bush.
- Thisbe sees and falls on the sword.
20. Hero and Leander. Hero Priestess of Aphrodite in tower.
- Turns lamp on every night to guide Leander on thru water.
- Rainy night it goes out and loses his way.
- She sees him on beach dead next morning-jumps off.
21. Baucis and Philemon
- Zeus and Hermes disguise as bag people. Everyone mean except this old couple.
- Treat them well, pray to Gods before meal, and about to kill goose for dinner.
- Reveal themselves, spare them from flood destroying rest of town. Home turned to castle .
- When die, they go out front, turn to Oak and Linden tree w/ intertwining branches.
22. Jason (son of Aeson, nephew of King Pelias of Iolcus)
- Sent Jason to Mt Pelion, raised by Centaur Chiron. Went back to Iolcus to claim throne.
- Lost show will carrying Hera in disguise thru river (fulfilling prophesy of Pelias getting killed by Aolid w/ one shoe). Goes to town, Pelias tells him he has to go get golden fleece.
- Argo, ship built by Argus and Athena. 1st ship of greeks. Dodona beam magically talked in brow. Best fighters go on trip, recruited by Hera.
- Island of Lemnian women who offended Aphrodite and made stinky men killed. Argonauts stay and begot children.
- Next island meet King Cyzicus, mistakenly killed after being swept back into harbor.
- Stop on Cios after Heracles broke oar, loses Hylas (Hercs boyfriend) to sea nymphs. Herc left on island.
- Island of Phineus- cursed w/ harpies taking food for revealing too much of divine plan. Harpies (1/2 woman and bird) befoul food. Drive off Harpies
- Pass through Symplegades (clashing rocks), and send a dove through to confirm passage.
23. Jason and Medea
- On Colchis, King Aeetes of Aea, received heros. Medea, daughter Heras plan for her to fall in love w/ Jason to undo Pelias).
- King Athamas and Queen Nephele had two children:Phrixus and Helle. He tired of her, got 2nd wife Ino, bore Melicertes. Feared Phrixus would get thrown, bribed locals to cause drought in town. Athamas sent messenger to oracle for this, she bribed to say sacrifice Phrixus. Gold ram appeared before sacrifice, Phrixus and Helle soured away on its back Helle lost grip and fell to Hellespont to death over sea. Phrixus sacrificed ram to Zeus, and gave skin to Aeetes for thanks.
- Aeetes tells Jason he can have fleece if he yokes 2 fire breathing bronzed hooved bulls; plowed the ground; sowed the dragons teeth left over from the monster that Cadmus killed at Thebes; and destroy warriors springing from their teeth.
- Medea gave him potion to spread over items for defeat, and marry her. Later, after journey, Aeetes was going to kill them, Medea drugged the guarding dragon of fleece, took it, and sailed away. Aeetes and son pursue, kill son. Married Medea and Aeetes retreated.
- Returned to Iolcus, but Pelias unwilling to step down. Killed his brother and his family. Medea tricked his daughters into cutting up at night and bring to her to turn him young-"omitted" ingredient. Town people drove them away.
- Jason and Medea move to Corinth, where Jason marries King Creon daughter, Medea kills all for revenge and is carried off in chariot of Sun God
- Medea moves to Athens and marries King Aegeus; Jason killed from rotten beam falling off the Argo.
24. Oedipus Rex, swollen foot (son of Laius)
- Laius fled Thebes to Pelops Court in Elis, fell in love with Chrysippos (his son) and raped him.Pelops cursed him and he went back to Thebes as King and married Jocasta. Oracle said he would die at hands of his son, who had his feet pinned and given to a shepherd to leave on side of Mt. Gave to King Polybus of Corinth and Merope.
- Friends taunted him, went to oracle which said "marry his mother and kill his father. Confused, never to go back to Corinth. Sphinx sat on hill by Thebes posing riddle "what goes on 4 legs in morning, 2 @ midday, and 3 in the evening?" Laius went to consult oracle, being killed by Oedipus and becomes king (brother in law Creon ruled while Laius was away, heard of bandit killing, and announced whoever got riddle got thrown and marry queen)
- Oedipus and Jocasta had boys Polynices & Eteocles, girls Antigone & Ismene. Curses himself for killing king. Tiresias, blind prophet, tells truththought of conspiracy. Polybus dies, Oedipus relieved but messenger tells of adoption and he as deliverer
- Jocasta hung herself in bedroom. Oedipus takes her pins and blinds himself in eyes. He goes to exile w/ Antigone in Colonus, near Athens.
- King Theseus grants sanctuary. Oracle says who posesses bones will be unconquerable. Both sons come to get him and he curses them to kill one another in battle. Prophecy is true by Tiresias- one of the Spartoi must be sacrificed to Ares if Thebes is to win Polyneces kills and is killed by Eteocles; Thebes wins war.
- Creon King (loses family 1st day as king)says treason to bury Polyneces. Antigone defies him and buried alive, kills herself just before Creons son Haemon rescues. Later Thebes is taken by Athens.
- Heracles - Pan Hellenic Hero
- Theseus - hero of Attica and Athens, killer of Minotaur
- Jason - hero of Iolcus, sailed Argo to get golden fleece
- Bellerophon- hero of Corinth, rider of Pegasus
- Perseus - founded Mycenae, killer of Medusa (Gorgon slayer)