1. Provide a PHYSIOLOGICAL definition of each term. (20 points).

- long-loop feedback



- synergism



- exocrine pancreas



- chorionic gonadotropin



- latent period



- motor unit



- pacemaker potential




- t-tubule




- rigor mortis




- pyloric tone


2. Complete the following table of hormones. (40 points)









liver, kidney,



bone marrow
















 plasma [glucose]

 plasma  [AA]

most cells








stomach, pancreas







plasma Na or K, angiotensin



Na and K excreted in urine






Male repro tract, other tissues










plasma Ca++, activate Vit.D




adrenal medulla



most tissues



Growth Hormone






most tissues, liver


 Corticotropin Releasing Hormone







corticotropin secretion




AP from hypothalamas (low BP)








AP from nipple mechanoreceptors











mammary gland

milk synthesis





3. Explain how the hypothalamus controls the functions of the pituitary. (5 points)





4. Select two hormones that are secreted as precursors, and explain where the precursor is made, where the hormone is activated, and what the active hormones do. (5 points)





5. Rewrite the following events in order, starting with a relaxed skeletal muscle. (10 points)

actin/myosin crossbridge formed

myosin becomes energized


myosin angle decreases (power stroke)

exocytosis of Ach

tropomyosin covers binding sites

CA++ pumped into SR

CA++ comes out of SR

CA++ binds to tropomin

ATP breaks crossbridge


6. Explain how tetanus occurs in vivo, and what purpose it serves. (5 points)






7. In what functional way(s) are “fast” and “slow” skeletal muscle fibers different? How are “oxidative” and “glycolytic” fibers different? (5 points)


8. In each blank, list all the muscle types (skeletal, smooth, cardiac) for which the statement is true. (10 points)

Use extracellular calcium

Use troponin

Use gap junctions (or equivelent)

Use ATP for contraction

Have motor end-plates

Have spike potentials

Have own muscle tone

Single-unit and multi-unit

Striated appearance

Ca++ dependent Ca++ channels