LLT121 †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Myths of Fertility††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† PowellChh. 10-12
 
Ch. 10. The Great Goddess and her lost beloved
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Demeter and Persephone (Kore)
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Hymn to Demeter : be able to summarize the basic story.
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Hades abducts the maiden
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† with Zeus's consent (and lure of narcissus)
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Hecate and Helius hear
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Demeter in disguise at Eleusis, as 'Doso'
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† welcomed by Celeus, Metaneira, and daughters
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† as nursemaid for Demophon
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† comforted by Iambe and kykeon
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Demeter bathes Demophon in fire
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† spell broken by Metaneira
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Cult at Eleusis founded in penance
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Zeus persuades Hades to release Persephone two seasons for one
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† doomed to return by the pomegranate
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Note: Rosetti's Proserpina,†† p. 238
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Interpretations: †††††††††† Agricultural allegory?
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Woman's predicament†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Near Eastern parallels
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Ritual and Cult: Mysteries at Eleusis
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† mystes= initiateand Telesterion
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Eumolpids and Kerykes
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 'Greater Mysteries,' late September
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† hierato Athens [convocation and baptism]
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† fifth-day procession to Eleusis 
 
Eastern parallels: Inanna and Dumuzi
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† vs. Ereshkegal (=Sumerian Persephone)
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† cycle of death and rebirth
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Isis and Osiris
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† vs. Seth/Typhon
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† triumph of Horus
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Cybele and Attis
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Nana pregnant from the pomegranate
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† gives birth to Attis
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Attis castratedand resurrected
 
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Aphrodite and Adonis
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Pygmalion and Galatea
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† son Paphos >> Cinyras >> Myrrha
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Adonis born from Myrrha
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† dies on the boarhunt, resurrected in flower 
 
Ch. 11.††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Dionysus
 
 †††††††††††††††††† Son of Semele, daughter of Cadmus,given firey birth at Thebes
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† infant Dionysus sheltered by Ino (=Leucothea)
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† reared by nymphs of Nysa
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† links with Cybele
††††††††††††††††††† the entourage:
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Maenads (=Bacchae) and Satyrs
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Sileni, and encounter with Midas
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Ariadne, bride of Dionysus
††††††††††††††††††† opposition to the new cult: victims and martyrs
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Lycurgus in Thrace
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† daughters of Minyas 
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† daughters of Proetus 
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† [Icarius at Athens]
††††††††††††††††††† tales of power:
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† captured by pirates
 
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† triumphant return to Thebes
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† vs. cousin Pentheus:†††††††††††††††††††††††† 
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††  Euripides' Bacchae
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† from the excerpt in Powell,be able to give a brief plot summary
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† identifying chief characters: 
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Pentheus †† Cadmus††† Agave
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Dionysus brings Semele from the dead (=Thyone)
 
††††††††††††††††††† Interpretation: Bronze-age god, recast by oriental cult
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Cult of Dionysus
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† vine and thyrsus
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ekstasis and enthousiasmos
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† sparagmos and omophagia
 
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Tragedy and Dionysia 
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† origins in dithyramb, mystery, or funeral rite?
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† first actor introduced by Thespis
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† dramatic festival at Athens,
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† instituted under tyranny, flourished under democracy
 
 
Ch. 12†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Journey among the Dead†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† MythNotes
 
††††††††††††††††††† Hades, "the Unseen" = Roman Dis(Dives) = Pluto (Grk. Ploutos); 
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† aka Orcus (boundary, confinement) 
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Soul as attenuated image
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† psyche = anima ghosts resentful of loss yearning to return (?) 
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Hermes psychompompos Anthesteria (Greek Halloween in Spring) 
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Epicurus:death of the soul 
 
Tales of katabasis (the journey below) and return (recast as necromancy for Homerís audience)
 
†††††††††††††††††††  Odysseusseeking Teiresias of Thebes
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† blood sacrifice for the dead to speak
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† (up come "new brides and unmarried boys, soldiers slain by the spear, 
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† still in armor": each as death caught them)
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Elpenor (whom they had left unburied)
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Odysseus' own mother (Anticlea)
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Teiresias tells of things to come
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Agamemnon ('trust no woman')†† Ajax (hating Odysseus forever)
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Achilles ('better a hireling to the poorest man alive'...) 
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† the vision (old material?)
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Minos, judge among the dead
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† the great sinners:
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Tityus††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Tantalus†††††††††††††††††††††††† Sisyphus
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 'phantom' of Heracles
 
††††††††††††††††††† From another story, the first glimmer of paradise: fields of Elysium, where Rhadamanthys rules (as told by Proteus)
 
Orpheus and Eurydice
††††††††††††††††††† Orphism,esp. death and rebirth of Dionysus
 
Plato's 'Myth of Er' (Republic 10)
††††††††††††††††††† Souls before (re)birth choose their lots 
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† and drink of Lethe
 
††††††††††††††††††† Vergil's tale of Aeneas' Descent, in seach of father Anchises
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Aeneas guided by Sibyl of Cumae
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† be able to draw a rough map of Vergil's underworld, placing the following:
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Charon and Acheron
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Cerberus
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Phlegethon, Tisiphone, and prison of the damned (aka Tartarus)
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Ixion, plus Tantalus, Sisyphus et al., including Danaids
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Elysium,vision of Roman heroes to come, and exit by Gates of Ivory