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Church History -- Gender Studies

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Last Updated: March 13, 2008


Adkin, N., "Self-Imitation in Jerome's Libellus de virginitate servanda (Epist. XXII)," Athenaeum 83/2 (1995), 469-85.

_____, "Athanasius' Letter to Virgins and Jerome's Libellus de virginitate servanda," RFIC 120/2 (1992), 185-203.

Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane, “On the Visual and the Vision: the Magdalene in Early Christian and Byzantine Art
     and Culture,” In Mariam, the Magdalen, and the Mother.
 Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2005: 123-149.

Auclair, M. Teresa of Avila. New York: Pantheon Books, 1953.

Boss, S.J. Empress and Handmaid: on Nature and Gender in the Cult of the Virgin Mary. New York: Cassell, 2000.

Bowie, F. and O. Davies. Hildegard of Bingen: An Anthology. London: SPCK, 1990.

Bowman-Thurston, B. The Widows: A Woman's Ministry in the Early Church. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1989.

Brauner, S. Fearless Wives and Frightened Shrews: The Construction of the Witch in Early Modern Germany.
    Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1995.

Briggs, R. Witches and Neighbors: The Social and Cultural Context of European Witchcraft. New York: Viking, 1996.

Brooten, B., "Early Christian Women and Their Cultural Context," in Feminist Perspectives on Biblical Scholarship, ed.
    A.Y. Collins, 1985:65-91.

Brown, P. The Body and Society: Men, Women and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity. New York: Columbia
    University Press, 1988.

_____. The Cult of the Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Burrus, V., "'Equipped for Victory': Ambrose and the Gendering of Orthodoxy," JECS 4/4 (1996), 461-75.

Cabaniss, A., "The Woes of Dhuoda, or France's First Woman of Letters," Mississippi Quarterly 11 (1958), 38-49.

Carroll, M. The Cult of the Virgin Mary: Psychological Origins. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Caspers, C., "Leviticus 12, Mary and Wax: Purification and Churching in Late Medieval Christianity," in M. Poorthuis
     and J. Schwartz, eds. Purity and Holiness: The Heritage of Leviticus. Leiden: Brill, 2000: 295-309.

Chadwick, N. The Age of the Saints in the Early Irish Church. London: Oxford, 1961.

Chance, J. Gender and Text in the Later Middle Ages. Gainesville: U. Press of Florida, 1996.

Church, F.F., "Sex and Salvation in Tertullian," HTR 68 (1975), 83-101.

Clark, E., "Holy Women, Holy Words: Early Christian Women, Social History, and the 'Linguistic Turn'," JECS 6/3
    (1999), 413-30.

_____. Women in the Early Church. Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1983.

_____, "Ascetic Renunciation and Feminine Advancement: A Paradox of Late Ancient Christianity," ATR 63 (1981a),

_____. Jerome, Chrysostom and Friends: Essays and Translations. Studies in Women and Religion; New York: Edwin
    Mellen, 1981b.

_____, "John Chrysostom and the Subintroductae," Church History 46 (1977a), 171-85.

_____, "Sexual Politics in the Writings of John Chrysostom," ATR 59 (1977b), 3-20.

Condren, M. The Serpent and the Goddess: Women, Religion and Power in Celtic Ireland. San Francisco: Harper and
    Row, 1989.

Coster, W., "Purity, Profanity, and Puritanism: The Churching of Women (1300-1700)," SCH 27 (1990), 377-87.

Croskery, J., "Christian Work of Women in the Early Church," ExpT 15 (1903-04), 111-115.

DeFelice, John F., Jr., “Women, Slaves, and Society in Rome's Empire and the Early Church,” In Light of Discovery.
     Eugene, Or: Pickwick, 2007: 107-126

Dillenberger, J., "The Magdalen: reflections on the image of the saint and sinner in Christian art," In Y. Haddad & E.
    Findly, eds. Women, religion and social change, 1985:115-45.

Donovan, L.A. Women Saints' Lives in Old English prose. Rochester, NY: Boydell & Brewer, 1999.

Dronke, P. Women Writers of the Middle Ages: A Critical Study of Texts from Perpetua to Marguerite Porete.
    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Dunn, G.D., "Tertullian and Rebekah: a Re-reading of an `Anti-Jewish' Argument in Early Christian Literature," VC 52/2
    (1998), 119-145.

Eckenstein, L. Women Under Monasticism, 500-1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1896.

Fatula, M.A. Catherine of Siena's Way. Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1987.

Flanagan, S. Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1170): a Visionary Life. London: Routledge, 1989.

Fox, M., ed. Hildegard of Bingen's Book of Divine Works, with Letters and Songs. Santa Fe: Bear, 1987.

French, D.R., "Maintaining Boundaries: The Status of Actresses in Early Christian Society," VC 52/3 (1998), 293-318.

Gager, J. Kingdom and Community: The Social World of Early Christianity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,

Gebara, I. and M.C. Bingemeyer. Mary, Mother of God, Mother of the Poor. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books,1989.

Goldman, S. The Wiles of Women/The Wiles of Men: Joseph and Potiphar's Wife in Ancient Near Eastern, Jewish,
    and Islamic Folklore
. Albany: SUNY Press, 1995.

Gryson, R. The Ministry of Women in the Early Church. Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1976.

Haines-Eitzen, K., "'Girls Trained in Beautiful Writing': Female Scribes in Roman Antiquity and Early Christianity,"
    JECS 6/4 (1998), 629-46.

Hart, C. and J. Bishop, eds. Hildegard of Bingen: Scivias. New York: Paulist, 1990.

Harvey, G., "The Suffering of Witches and Children: Uses of the Witchcraft Passages in the Bible," in Words
    Remembered, Texts Renewed
(1995), 113-34.

Harvey, S.A., "Sacred Bonding: Mothers and Daughters in Early Syriac Hagiography," JECS 4/1 (1996), 27-56.

Heimmel, J., "God Is Our Mother": Julian of Norwich and the Medieval Image of Christian Feminine Divinity.
Salzburg Studies in English Literature, vol. 92:5. Salzburg: University of Salzburg, 1982:46-102.

Heine, R. The Montanist Oracles and Testimonia. Macon: Mercer University Press, 1989.

Herlihy, D. Medieval Households. Cambridge: Harvard U. Press, 1985.

Hillgarth, J.N. Christianity and Paganism: 350-750. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986.

Hozeski, B., trans. Scivias by Hildegard of Bingen. Santa Fe: Bear, 1986.

Hughes, K. Church and Society in Ireland: A.D. 400-1200. London: Variorum Reprints, 1987.

Humphreys, C. From Ash to Fire [Teresa of Avila]. New York: New City Press, 1992.

Jensen, A. God's Self-Confident Daughters: Early Christianity and the Liberation of Women. Louisville, KY:
    Westminster/John Knox, 1996.

Karras, V., "Male domination of woman in the writings of Saint John Chrysostom," Greek Orthodox Theological
36 (1991), 131-139.

Kaveny, M. Cathleen, “The Order of Widows: What the Early Church Can Teach Us About Older Women and Health Care,”
     Christian Bioethics
11/1 (2005), 11-34.

Kearns, C. The Life of Catherine of Siena. Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1980.

Kempe, M. The Book of Margery Kempe: a New Translation. Image/Doubleday, 1998.

Kemp-Welch, A. Of Six Medieval Women. Williamstown, MA: Corner House, 1972.

King, K.L., ed. Images of the Feminine in Gnosticism. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1988.

Kirschner, J. and S. Wemple, eds. Women of the Medieval World. New York: Basil Blackwell, 1985.

Klawiter, F.C., "The Role of Martyrdom and Persecution in Developing the Priestly Authority of Women in Early
    Christianity: A Case Study of Montanism," Church History 49 (1980), 251-61.

Koch, R., "Mechthild von Magdeburg, Woman of Two Worlds," 14th Century English Mystics Newsletter 3
    (1981), 111-31.

Kraemer, R.S. Women and Christian Origins. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

_____. Gender and Christianity. New York: Oxford, 1998.

_____. Her Share of the Blessings: Women's Religions among Pagans, Jews, and Christians in the
    Greco-Roman World
. New York: Oxford, 1992.

_____, "Women's Authorship of Jewish and Christian Literature in the Greco-Roman Period," in A.J. Levine, ed.
    "Women Like This": New Perspectives on Jewish Women in the Greco-Roman World. Atlanta: Scholars, 1991:221-43.

_____. Maenads, Martyrs, Matrons, Monastics: a Sourcebook on Women's Religions in the Greco-Roman World.
    Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988.

_____, "Women in the Religions of the Graeco-Roman World," RSR 9 (1983), 127-39.

_____, " The Conversion of Women to Ascetic Forms of Christianity," Signs 6 (1980), 298-307.

_____ and M.R. D'Angelo, eds. Women and Christian Origins. New York: Oxford, 1999.

Lachman, B. The Journal of Hildegard of Bingen. New York: Bell Tower, 1993.

Laurence, P., "Ivresse et luxure feminines: les sources classiques de Jerome," Latomus 57/4 (1998), 885-99.

Lefkowitz, M.R., "The Motivations for St. Perpetua's Martyrdom," JAAR 44 (1976), 417-21.

Leitman, M. and W. Zeisel, "Univera: An Example of Continuity and Change in Roman Society," Church History 46
    (1977), 19-32.

MacDonald, M.Y. Early Christian Women and Pagan Opinion: The Power of the Hysterical Woman. Cambridge:
    Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Mackey, J.P., ed. An Introduction to Celtic Christianity. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1989.

Madigan, S., ed. Mystics, Visionaries and Prophets. Minneapolis: Augsburg/Fortress, 1998.

McKenna, M.L. Women of the Church: Role and Renewal. New York: P.J. Kenedy and Sons, 1967.

McNamara, J.A., J. Halborg, and E.G. Whatley, eds. Sainted Women of the Dark Ages. Durham: Duke University
    Press, 1992.

McNamara, J.A. A New Song: Celibate Women in the First Three Christian Centuries. New York: Haworth, 1983.

_____, "Wives and Widows in Early Christian Thought," International Journal of Women's Studies 2 (1979), 575-92.

_____ and S. Wemple, "Sanctity and Power: The Dual Pursuit of Medieval Women," in R. Bridenthal and C. Koonz, eds.
     Becoming Visible: Women in European History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977:90-118.

_____, "Marriage and Divorce in the Frankish Kingdom," in S.M. Stuard, ed. Women in Medieval Society. Philadelphia:
    University of Pennsylvania Press, 1976: 95-124.

_____, "Sexual Equality and the Cult of Virginity in Early Christian Thought," Feminist Studies 3 (1976), 145-58.

Marchand, J., "The Frankish Mother: Dhuoda," in K.M. Wilson, ed. Medieval Women Writers. Athen: University
    of Georgia Press, 1984: 1-29.

Marcus, I., "Mothers, Martyrs, and Moneymakers: Some Jewish Women in Medieval Europe," Conservative Judaism
    10 (1986), 31-45.

Marjanen, Antti, “Mary Magdalene, a Beloved Disciple,” In Mariam, the Magdalen, and the Mother. Bloomington, IN:
     Indiana University Press, 2005: 49-61.

Meeks, W.A., "The Image of the Androgyne: Some Uses of a Symbol in Earliest Christianity," History of Religions 13
    (1974), 165-208.

Meens, R., "A Relic of Superstition, Bodily Impurity and the Church from Gregory the Great to the Twelfth Century
     Decretists," in M. Poorthuis and J. Schwartz, eds. Purity and Holiness: The Heritage of Leviticus. Leiden: Brill, 2000:

_____, "Questioning Ritual Purity: The Influence of Gregory the Great's Answers to Augustine's Queries about Childbirth,
     Menstruation and Sexuality," in R. Gameson, ed. St. Augustine and the Conversion of England. Stroud: Sutton
     Publishing, 1999: 174-86.

Metteer, C.A., "'Mary Needs Martha': The Purposes of Manual Labor in Early Egyptian Monasticism," St. Vladimir's
    Theological Quarterly
43 (1999), 163-208.

Mutter, K.F., "An Evaluation of Chrysostom's Theology of Marriage and Family," BRT 8 (1998), 24-38.

Nugent, R. Portrait of the Consecrated Woman in the Greek Christian Literature of the First Four Centuries.
    Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1941.

Otten, W., "Christ's Birth of a Virgin who Became a Wife: Flesh and Speech in Tertullian's De carne Christi," VChr
51/3 (1997), 247-60.

Pagels, E.H. The Gnostic Gospels. New York: Random House, 1979.

_____, "What Became of God the Mother: Conflicting Images of God in Early Christianity," Signs 2 (1976), 293-303.

Palmer, R., "Roman Shrines of Female Chastity from the Caste Struggle to the Papacy of Innocent I," Revista storica
    dell' antichita
4 (1974), 294-309.

Perkins, Judith, “The Rhetoric of the Maternal Body in the Passion of Perpetua,” In Mapping Gender in Ancient Religious
. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2007: 313-332.

Peters, M., "The Beguines: Feminine Piety Derailed," Spirituality Today 43 (1991), 36-52.

Petroff, E.A., ed. Medieval Women's Visionary Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Pierce, J.M., "'Green Women' and Blood Pollution: Some Medieval Rituals for the Churching of Women after Childbirth,"
     Studia Liturgica 29 (1999), 191-215.

Rader, R., "The Martyrdom of Perpetua: a Protest Account of Third-Century Christianity," in  P. Wilson-Kastner, ed.
    A Lost Tradition: Women Writers of the Early Church. Boston: University Press of America, 1981:1-32.

Radice, B., trans. The Letters of Abelard and Heloise. New York: Penguin, 1974.

Rouwhorst, G., "Leviticus 12--15 in Early Christianity,"in in M. Poorthuis and J. Schwartz, eds. Purity and Holiness: The
     Heritage of Leviticus
. Leiden: Brill, 2000: 181-93.

Ruether, R.R., "Mothers of the Church: Ascetic Women in the Late Patristic Age," in R. Ruether and E. McLaughlin,
    eds. Women of Spirit, 1979:71-98.

_____, "Misogynism and Virginal Feminism in the Fathers of the Church," in R. Ruether, ed. Religion and Sexism, 1974:

Sawyer, D.F. Women and Religion in the First Christian Centuries. Routledge, 1996.

Schlabach, G., "'Love is the Hand of the Soul': The Grammar of Continence in Augustine's Doctrine of Christian Love,"
    JECS 6/1 (1999), 59-92.

Schuessler Fiorenza, E., "Word, Spirit and Power: Women in Early Christian Communities," in R.R. Ruether and E.
    McLaughlin, eds. Women of Spirit. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979a:29-70.

_____, "`You are not to be called Father,' Early Christian History in a Feminist Perspective," Cross Currents
    29 (1979b), 301-23.

Shank, M.H., "A Female University Student in Late Medieval Krakow," Signs 12 (1987), 373.

Shaw, T.M. The Burden of the Flesh: Fasting and Sexuality in Early Christianity. Minneapolis: Fortress/
    Augsburg, 1998.

Shoemaker, Stephen J., “The Virgin Mary in the Ministry of Jesus and the Early Church According to the Earliest
     Life of the Virgin,” Harvard Theological Review 98/4 (2005),

Sivan, H., "Anician Women, the Cento of Proba, and Aristocratic Conversion in the Fourth Century [religious life and
    role of Roman Christian women]," Vigiliae Christianae 47 (1993), 140-157.

Smith, S.L. The Power of Women: a Topos in Medieval Art and Literature. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania
    Press, 1995.

Strehlow, W. and G. Hertzka. Hildegard of Bingen's Medicine. Santa Fe: Bear, 1988.

Tavard, G. Woman in Christian Tradition. University of Notre Dame Press, 1973.

Temporini, H. Die Frauen am Hofe Trajans: Ein Beitrag zur Stellung der Augustae im Principat. Berlin: de Gruyter,

Thurston, B.B. The Widows: A Women's Ministry in the Early Church. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1989.

Turpin, J. Women in Church History. Cincinnati: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 1989.

Viden, G., "St. Jerome On Female Chastity: Subjugating the Elements of Desire," SO 73 (1998), 139-57.

Vierow, H., "Feminine and Masculine Voices in the Passion of Saints Perpetua and Felicitas," Latomus 58/3
    (1999), 600-619.

Voaden, R. God's Words, Women's Voices: the Discernment of Spirits in the Writings of Late-Medieval Women
. Suffolk, UK: York Medieval Press, 1999.

Wagner, W., "Divine Femaleness: Two Second Century Contributions [Apuleius of Madaura and Clement of
    Alexandria]," Journal of Religious Studies 17/1-2 (1991), 19-43.

Ward, B. Harlots of the Desert. London/Oxford: Mobray, 1987.

Wemple, S. Women in Frankish Society. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981.

Wilson-Kastner, P., et al, eds. A Lost Tradition: Women Writers of the Early Church. University Press of America, 1981.

Winslow, D., "Priesthood and Sexuality in Post-Nicene Fathers," SLJT 18 (1975), 216f.

Winstead, K.A. Chaste Passions: Medieval English Virgin Martyr Legends. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University
    Press, 2000.

_____. Virgin Martyrs: Legends of Sainthood in Late Medieval England. Cornell, 1997.

Wire, Antoinette Clark, “Women's History from Birth-Prophecy Stories,” In Christian Origins. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2005:
     71-93, 294-295.

Wolmarans, Johannes L.P., “Misogyny as a meme: the legacy of James 1:12-18,” Acta Patristica et Byzantina 17 (2006), 349-361.

Yarbrough, A., "The Christianization of Rome: The Example of Roman Women," Church History 45 (1976), 149-65.